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梦想江大-江南大学设计艺术类专业考研王牌

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考研英语翻译难点精析  

2011-11-02 21:08:49|  分类: 考研复习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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  根据全国硕士研究生统一考试英语考试大纲规定,考研翻译“主要考查考生准确理解内容或结构复杂的英语材料的能力。要求考生阅读一篇约400词的文章,并将其中5个划线部分(约150词)译成汉语,要求译文准确、完整、通顺。考生在答题卡2上作答。” 其测试的重点是考生对英语的理解能力及汉语表达能力,有关翻译部分的规定是“能将一般难度的英语短文译成汉语,理解基本正确,译文达意”。这就需要考生既要有比较好的英语基础,还要有扎实的汉语功底。翻译是一门语言的艺术,是语言之间的转换,是在准确理解的基础上用一种语言来忠实的表达另外一种语言;它是一项对综合能力要求比较高的题型,它不仅要求学生对词汇、语法、语篇以及文化等有较好的掌握,还要求学生有着很强的组词成句、组句成段的能力。但是其在评分时有合适标准和可接受的标准,也就是说只要考生所翻译的句子适合于上下文的基本思想而且其译文也能被人所接受,一般可以判定这个句子的翻译符合要求。

   由于翻译部分的句型结构和阅读理解的较难句型基本类似,考试重点如出一辙,为了让大家更好的理解阅读理解真题文章,提高做题正确率,现在把考研翻译方法进行归纳总结,以便大家复习参考。

 

考研英语翻译难点精析(一)

被动语态翻译法

 

1) 变为汉语的主动形式。

Eg:

  It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset: it invites you to think that animals should be treated either with the consideration humans extend to other humans, or with no consideration at all.这种说法从一开始就将讨论引向两个极端,它使人们认为应该这样对待动物:要么像对待人类自身一样关切体谅,要么完全冷漠无情。

2) 译成具有被动意义的汉语结构。

Eg:

  For all the help this computer may provide, it should not be seen as a substitute for fundamental thinking and reasoning skills.尽管计算机可以提供那么多的帮助,它却不应该被看作是基本的思维和推理技巧的替代物。

  Eg:

  How well the predictions will be validated by later performance depends upon the amount, reliability, and appropriateness of the information used and on the skill and wisdom with which it is interpreted.这些预测将在多大程度上为后来的表现所证实取决于所用信息的数量、可靠程度、适宜程度以及用来解释这些信息的技巧与才智。

3) 增添“人们”、“大家”等适当的词做汉语译文的主语。

Eg:

  And it is imagined by many that the operations of the common mind can be by no means compared with these processes, and that they have to be acquired by a sort of special training.许多人认为普通人的思维活动根本无法和科学家的思维过程想比较,他们并认为这些思维过程必须经过某中专门训练才能掌握。

Eg:

During this transfer, traditional historical methods were augmented by additional methodologies designed to interpret the new forms of evidence in the historical study.在这种转变中,历史学家研究历史时,那些解释新史料的新方法充实了传统的历史研究方法。

 

考研英语翻译难点精析(二)

分译法

 

    英语长句子比较多,汉语句子相对而言比较短。在翻译时可以改变原文结构,把原文的某个成分从原来的结构中分离出来,译成一个独立成分、从句或并列分句。

 

  Eg:  It has been rightly stated that this situation is a threat to international security.这个局势对国际安全是个威胁,这样的说法是完全正确的。

 

合译法

 

和分译法不同,合译法是将不同的句子成分组合在一起,使其更符合汉语的表达方法。Eg:

  Science moves forward, they say, not so much through the insights of great men of genius as because of more ordinary things like improved techniques and tools.他们说科学的发展与其说源于天才伟人的真知灼识,不如说源于改进了的技术和工具等等更为普遍的东西。(将英语的一个句子结构翻译成一个词组)

 Eg:

 When that happens, it is not a mistake: it is mankind’s instinct for moral reasoning in action, an instinct that should be encouraged rather than laughed at.这种反应并不错,这是人类用道德观念进行推理的本能在起作用。这种本能应得到鼓励,而不是遭到嘲笑。(When that happens, it is not a mistake原来是两个句子,现在组合成一个简洁的汉语句子。)

 

顺序调整法

 

一般来说,翻译时应该按照句子原来的顺序进行,但由于英汉两种语言中定语、状语和一些其他成分的位置不完全相同,翻译时需要做一定的调整(例如采用倒译法),使其更符合汉语的习惯。

Eg:

  The true measure of the danger is represented by the hazards we will encounter if we enter the new age of technology without first evaluating our responsibility to environment.如果我们进入了技术新时代而不首先估价我们对环境所负的责任,我们将遇到公害,这些公害将表明危险真正达到了什么程度。

Eg:

That our environment has little, if anything, to do with our abilities, characteristics and behavior is central to this theory.这种理论的核心是,我们的环境同我们的才能、性格特征和行为即使有什么关系的话,也是微不足道的。(原来的谓语,在译文中变成了在前的主语。)

   

考研英语翻译难点精析(三)

 

反译法

 

一个问题有时可以从不同的角度来解释说明。有些句子英语是从正面说的,汉语可以从反面来解释。

1)否定译成肯定。

Eg:

  I never passed the theatre but I thought of his last performance.每一次经过那家剧院,我都会想起他的最后一次演出。

 Eg:

 Hardly a month goes by without word of another survey revealing new depths of scientific illiteracy among U.S. citizens.美国公民科盲日益严重,这种调查报告几乎月月都有。(双重否定)

  

2)肯定译成否定。

Eg:

  Everyone has the right to be free from hunger.人人有不挨饿的权利。

Eg:

This will be particularly true since energy pinch will make it difficult to continue agriculture in the high-energy American fashion that makes it possible to combine few farmers with high yields.这种困境将是确定无疑的,因为能源的匮乏使农业无法以高能量消耗、投入少数农民就可能获得高产的美国耕种方式继续下去了。

  Eg:

  The target is wrong, for in attacking the tests, critics divert attention from the fault that lies with ill-informed or incompetent users.把标准化测试作为抨击目标是错误的,因为在抨击这类测试时,批评者不考虑其弊病来自人们对测试不甚了解或使用不当。

几种特殊否定句式的翻译法

 “no more…than翻译成汉语“和……一样不”

   Eg:

 The heart is no more intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.脏和胃一样不能思维,都受大脑支配。

Eg:

There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, any more than they can limit how much water you drink.他们没有理由限定你吃多少维生素,就如同他们不能限定你喝多少水一样。

“not so much …as”翻译成“与其说……,不如说……”

Eg:

 It was not so much the many blows he received as the lack of fighting spirit that led to his losing the game.与其说他输了比赛是多次被击中,不如说是自己缺乏斗志。

Eg:

  There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry.所谓方法论是指一般的历史研究中的特有概念,还是指历史研究中各个具体领域使用的研究手段,人们对此意见不一。

Eg:

  He is the last person I want to see in the world.他是这个世界上我最不愿意见到的人。

 

考研英语翻译难点精析(四)

    定语从句翻译法

1)合译法:把定语从句放在被修饰的词语之前,从而将英语复合句翻译成汉语单句。

Eg:

  Congress made public a survey of human rights in 105 countries that receive U.S. aid.国会公布了关于接受美国援助的105个国家的人权情况调查报告。

2)分译法:根据定语从句的不同情况,我们可以将其翻译成并列分句、其它从句或独立句等。

Eg:

  Anyone who stops absorbing new knowledge is certain to lag behind.任何人如果停止吸取新知识,就肯定会落后。(译为条件状语从句)

  The strike would prevent the docking of ocean steamships which require assistance of tugboats.罢工会使远洋航船不能靠岸,因为他们需要拖船的帮助。(译成原因状语从句)

  A geological prospecting engineer who had made a spectral analysis of ores discovered a new open-cut coalmine.一位地质勘探工程师对光谱进行了分析之后,发现了新的露天煤矿。(译为时间状语结构)

  The delivery of public services has tended to be an area where we decorate an obsolete process with technology.公共服务的提供方式已趋陈旧,这正是我们必须采用技术加以装备的领域。(译为并列分句)

  We now live in a very new economy, a service economy, where relationships are becoming more important than physical products.现在我们正生活于一种全新的经济,即服务性经济中,各种关系越来越比物质产品更为重要。(译为并列分句)

 

 主语从句翻译法

1)以that, what, who, where, whatever等代词引导的主语从句,可以将从句翻译成“的”字结构。

Eg:  It is important that science and technology be pushed forward as quickly as possible.重要的是要把科学技术搞上去。

  Whoever breaks the law will be punished.凡是犯法的人都要受到法律的制裁。(主语从句与主句合译成简单句,按顺序译出)

 

 2)也可以译成“主-谓-宾”结构,从句本身做句子的主语,其余部分按原文顺序译出。

Eg:

Whether the Government should increase the financing of pure science at the expense of technology or vice versa(反之)often depends on the issue of which is seen as the driving force.政府究竟是以牺牲对技术的经费投入来增加对纯理论科学的经费投入,还是相反,这往往取决于把哪一方看作是驱动的力量。

 

3)分译法:把原来的状语从句从整体结构中分离出来,译成另一个相对独立得单句。

Eg:

  It has been rightly stated that this situation is a threat to international security.这个局势对国际安全是个威胁,这样的说法是完全正确的。(It是形式主语,that this situation is a threat to international security是真正的宾语)

 

 宾语从句翻译法

由that, what, how, where等词引导的宾语从句一般按照原文顺序翻译,即顺译法。

 Eg: 

Scientists have reason to think that a man can put up with far more radiation than 0.1 rem without being damaged.科学家们有理由认为人可以忍受远超过0.1雷姆的辐射而不受伤害。

Eg:

We wish to inform you that we specialize in the export of Chinese textiles and shall be glad to enter into business relations with you on the basis of equality and mutual benefit.我公司专门办理中国纺织品出口业务,并愿在平等互利的基础上同贵公司建立业务关系。

 

 考研英语翻译难点精析(五)

状语从句翻译法

1)顺译法:按照原文顺序翻译。

Eg:

  If the negotiations between the rich nations and the poor nations make headway, it is intended that a ministerial session in December should be arranged.如果富国和穷国之间的谈判获得进展的话,就打算在12月份安排召开部长级会议。

2)逆译法:把位于句末的从句放在句首。

Eg:

  Obviously, there would be no point in investing in a computer if you had to check all its answers, but people should also rely on their own internal computers and check the machine when they have the feeling that something has gone wrong.显然,如果计算机给出的全部答案均需要核查,花钱买计算机就毫无意义。不过,人们也应该信赖自身内部的计算能力,在认为计算机有问题时进行复查。

3)分译法:有时也可以译为并列句。

 Eg: Electricity is such an important energy that modern industry couldn’t develop without it.电是一种非常重要的能量,没有它,现代化工业就不能发展。(原文由such…that…引导的结果状语从句译为汉语的并列句)

 

 表语从句翻译法

大部分情况下可以采用顺译法,间或也可以用逆译法。

Eg:

  My point is that the frequent complaint of one generation about the one immediately following it is inevitable.我的观点是一代人经常抱怨下一代人是不可避免的。(顺译法)

  His view of the press was that the reporters were either for him or against him.他对新

闻界的看法是,记者们不是支持他,就是反对他。(顺译法)

  Water and food is what the people in the area are badly needed.该地区的人们最需要的是

水和食品。(逆译法)

 

 同位语从句翻译法

1)补译法:加上一些词,如“即”,“以为”,或者以冒号、破折号分开处理。

 Eg: That racism continues to prevail is indicated by the fact that we, intentionally or not, chose three white men to be the first men associated with the moon.种族主义继续占上风可有事实说明:我们有意无意挑选了三位白种人作为首批登陆者。

2)先译法:先翻译从句,即从句前置。

Eg:

  This is a universally accepted principle of international law that the territory sovereignty doesn’t admit of infringement.一个国家的领土不容侵犯,这是国际法中尽人皆知的准则。

  Despite the fact that comets are probably the most numerous astronomical bodies in the solar system aside from small meteor fragments and the asteroids, they are largely a mystery.在太阳系中除小片流星和小行星外,彗星大概是数量最多的天体了,尽管如此,它们仍旧基本上是神秘莫测的。

3)顺译法:按照原文顺序翻译。

Eg:  As an obedient son, I had to accept my parents’decision that I was to be a doctor, though the prospect interested me not at all.作为一个孝顺的儿子,我接受父母的决定,去当大夫,虽然我对这样的前途毫无兴趣。

    

 

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